language، anxiety، Gardner,، University

for improving the assessment and monitoring of students with limited english proficiency. Alexandria, VA: Council of Chief State School Officers, Weber Design.
Daly, J. A. (1991). Understanding communication apprehension: An introduction for language educators. In E. K. Horwitz & D. J. Young (Eds.), Language Anxiety: From theory and research to classroom implications (pp. 3-13). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Deci. E. L. and Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. Plenum press: New York.
Dörnyei, Z. (2001). Motivational strategies in the language classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dornyei, Z., &Csizer, K. (1998). Ten commandments for motivating language learners: results of an empirical study. Language Teaching Research, 2(3), 203-229.
Dornyei, Z. and Otto, I. (1998). Motivation in action: A process model of L2 motivation. Working Papers in Applied Linguistics, 4: 43-69.
El-Banna, A. I. (1989). Language anxiety and language proficiency among EFL/ESL learners at university level: an exploratory investigation. Retrieved in September 2008 from ERIC Database (ED308698).
Ellis, R. (1994). The study of second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gardner, R.C. (1985). Social psychology and second language learning: the role of attitudes and motivation. London: Edward Arnold.
Gardner, R. C. (1988). The socio-educational model of second language learning: Assumptions, findings, and issues. Language Learning, 38, 101-126.
Gardner, R. C. (2004). Attitude/Motivation Test Battery: International AMTB Research Project. Retrieved 15 January 2014 from http://publish.uwo.ca/~gardner/docs/englishamtb.pdf.
Gardner, R. (2006). The socio-educational model of second language acquisition: a research paradigm. EUROSLA Yearbook, 6, 237–260.
Gardner, R. C. (2010). Motivation and second language acquisition: The socio-educational model (Vol. 10). London: Peter Lang.
Gardner, R. C., Lalonde, R. N., Moorcroft, R., & Evers, F. T. (1987). “Second language attrition: The role of motivation and use”. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 6, 29-47.
Gardner, R. C., &MacIntyre, P. D. (1993).On the measurement of affective variables in second language learning.Language Learning, 43, 157-194.
Gardner, H., & Lambert, W.E. (1959).Motivational variables in second-language acquisition.Canadian Journal of Psychology, 13(4), 266-272.
Gardner, R.C., Tremblay, P.F., &Masgoret, A.M. (1997). Towards a full model of second language learning: An empirical investigation. The Modern Language Journal, 81(3), 344-362.
Gregerson, T. (2003). To err is human: A reminder to teachers of language-anxious students. Foreign Language Annals, 36 (1), 25–32.
Hamer, J. (2001).The practice of English language teaching. Essex: Longman Press.
Harmer, J. (2007).The practice of English language teaching. (4th ed.). Essex: Longman.
Hashimoto, Y. (2002). Motivation and willingness to communicate as predictors of L2. Use: The Japanese ESL context. Second Language Studies, 20(2), 29-70.
Horwitz, E. K. (1987). Surveying student belief about language learning.In Anita Wenden and Joan Rubin, (eds.). Learning strategies in language learning (119-129). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B., & Cope, J. (1986).Foreign language classroom anxiety.Modern Language Journal, 70(2), 125-132.
Horwitz, E. K., & Young, D. J. (1991).Language Anxiety: From theory and research to classroom implications. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Hsu, Y.C. (2004). A study on junior college students’ reading anxiety in English as a foreign language.Unpublished master’s thesis, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi, Taiwan.
Huang, H.W. (2005). The relationship between learning motivation and speaking anxiety among EFL non-English major freshmen in Taiwan (Master’s thesis).Chaoyang University of Technology, Taiwan.
Karahan, F. (2007).Language attitudes of Turkish students towards the English language and its use in Turkish context.Journal of Arts and Sciences Say, 73-87.
Kim, J, (2000). Foreign language listening anxiety: A study of Korean students learning English. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Texas: The University of Texas at Austin.
Kitano, K. (2001). Anxiety in the college Japanese classroom.The Modern Language Journal, 85(4), 549-566.
Koizumi, R. (2002). The effect of motivation, language anxiety, and test anxiety on English proficiency of Japanese junior high school students.Japan Language Testing Association Journal, 5, 91-110.
Koralp, S. (2005).A retrospective analysis of the English language learning anxiety experienced by prospective teachers of English.Unpublished M.A Thesis. Turkey.
Krashen, S. D. (1985). The input hypothesis: Issues and implications. New York: Longman.
Krashen, S. D. (1987). Principles and practice in second language acquisition. New York: Prentice-Hall International.
Lazarus, R. S. (1991). Emotion and adaptation. London: Oxford University Press.
Leki, I. (1999). Techniques for reducing second language writing anxiety. In D. J. Young (Ed.), Affect in foreign language and second language learning: A practical guide to creating a low-anxiety classroom atmosphere (pp. 64-88). Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Lepper, M., Iyengar, S., & Corpus, J. (2005). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations in the classroom: Age differences and academic correlates. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97(2), 184-196.
Lifrieri, V. (2005). A sociological perspective on motivation to learn EFL: The case of escuelasplurilingües in Argentina. M.A thesis, University of Pittsburgh.
Liu, H. J. (2010a). Motivation to learn in the ability-grouped foreign language classroom. Taipei: Crane Publishing Co., Ltd.
Liu, H. J. (2012). Understanding EFL undergraduate anxiety in relation to motivation, autonomy, and language proficiency.Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 9(1), 123-139.
Macintyre, P. D. (1999) Language anxiety: A review of the research for language teachers. In D. J. Young (ed.). Affect in foreign language and second language learning: A practical guide to creating a low-anxiety classroom atmosphere. Boston: McGraw-Hill, pp. 24-45.
MacIntyre, P. D., & Gardner, R. C. (1989). Anxiety and second language learning: Toward a theoretical clarification. Language Learning, 39, 251-275.
MacIntyre, P. D., &Gardner, R. (1991). Models and results in the study of anxiety and language learning: a review of the literature. Language Learning, 41(1): 85-117.
MacIntyre, P. D. & R. C. Gardner. (1994). The subtle effects of language anxiety on cognitive processing in the second language. Language Learning, 44, 283-305.
MacSwan, J., & Pray, L. (2005).Learning English bilingually: Age of onset of exposure and rate of acquisition among English language learners in a bilingual education program.Bilingual Research Journal, 29 (3), 653-678.
Madigan, R., Linton, P., & Johnson, S. (1996). The paradox of writing apprehension. In L. W. Gregg & E. R. Steinberg (Eds.), Cognitive processes in writing (pp. 295-307). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
MahdaviZafarghandi A. &Jodai H. (2012). Attitudes toward English & English learning at an Iranian Military University: A Preliminary Survey. Available from: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/contentdelivery/servlet/ERICServlet?accno=ED528150.
Mahdinejad ,G., Hasanzadeh, R., Mirzaian,B., &Ebrahimi, S. (2012). Motivational orientations and students’ English language learning: The case of Iranian EFL learners. European Motivation Journal of Social Science, 32(2), 239-250. Retrieved January 01, 2014 from http://www.europeanjournalofsocialsciences.com.
Mathews, T. J. (1996). A case for increasing negative affect in foreign language classes.Language Learning Journal, 13, 38-41.
Matsuda, S., &Gobel, P. (2004).Anxiety and predictors of performance in foreign language classrooms.System, 32, 21-36.
McCroskey
, J. C. (1984). Measures of communication bound anxiety. Speech Monographs, 37, 269-277.
Melanlioglue, D. (2013). Impacts of authentic listening tasks upon listening anxiety and listening comprehension.Academic Journals, 8(14), 1177-1185.
Merriam-Webster Dictionary. (2003). Retrieved 25 June 2014 fromhttp://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/anxiety.
Mesri, F. (2012).The relationship between gender and Iranian EFL learners’ foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA).International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 2(6), 147-156.
Moiinvaziri, M. (2008). Motivational orientation in English language learning: A study of Iranian undergraduate students .Global practices of language teaching. Proceeding of International Online Language Conference (IOLC).Universal publishers. Boca Raton, Florida, US, 126-135.
Murlidharan, R., & Sharma, A. (1971). Manifest anxiety in Indian children. Indian Educational Review, 6, 67-68.
Nahavandi, N., &Mukundan, J. (2013).Foreign language learning anxiety among Iranian EFL learners along gender and different proficiency levels.Language in India, 13(1), 133-152.
Noels, K. A., Clément, R., & Pelletier, L. G. (1999). Perceptions of teachers’ communicative style and student’ intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.The Modern Language Journal, 83, 23-34.
Oxford, R.L. &Shearin, J. (1996).Language learning motivation in a new key. In Oxford, R.L. (ed.), Language learning motivation: Pathways to the new century. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press: 121–144.
Padilla, A. M., Cervantes, R. C., Maldonado, M., &García, R. E. (1988).Coping responses to psychosocial stressors among Mexican and Central American immigrants.Journal of Community Psychology, 16 (4), 418–427.
Price, M. L. (1991). The subjective Experience of foreign language anxiety: Interviews with highly anxious students. In E. K. Horwitz,& D. J. Young (Eds.), Language anxiety: From theory and research to classroom implications. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Qashoa, S. (2006).Motivation among learners of English in the secondary schools in the eastern coast of the UAE.M.A thesis, British University in Dubai.
Ryan, R. M., &Deci, E. L. (2000).Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well- being.American Psychologist, 55, 68-78.
Sadighi, F. &Maghsudi, N. (2000).The relationship between motivation and English proficiency among Iranian EFL learners.Indian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 26, 39-52.
Saito, Y., Horwitz, E. K., & Garza, T. J. (1999).Foreign language reading anxiety.The Modern Language Journal, 83(2), 202-218.
Scarcella, R. C., & Oxford, R. L. (1992).The tapestry of language learning: The individual in the communicative classroom. Boston: Heinle&Heinle.
Schlenker, B. R., & Leary, M. R. (1982). Social anxiety and self-presentation: A conceptual model. Psychological Bulletin, 92, 641-669.
Scovels, T. (1991). The effect of anxiety on foreign language learning: A review of the anxiety research. Language Learning, 28, 128-142.
Sellers, V.D. (2000).Anxiety and reading comprehension in Spanish as a foreign language.Foreign Language Annals, 33(5), 512-521.
Shabani, M. B. (2012). Levels and sources of language anxiety and fear of negative evaluation among Iranian EFL learners.Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 2(11): 2378-2383.
Shirbagi, N. (2010). Orientations and attitudes Of Iranian University Students for English Language Learning.PEDAGOGIKA, 99.
Soupon, V. (2004) Implementing strategies to assist test-anxious students.Journal of Instructional Psychology, 31, 4, 292-296.
Spielberger, C. D. (1983). Manual for the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI).PaloAlto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Steers, R., & Porter, W. (1991).Motivation and work behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill.Inc. Lincoln.

دیدگاهتان را بنویسید