تحقیق با موضوع motivation، female، group، participants’

دانلود پایان نامه

the participants’ motivation to learn English. As the table shows, the mean score of the participants’ motivation is 94.10. Besides, the mean scores of the minimum and the maximum levels of the participants’ motivation are 67 and 127, respectively. On the other hand, it is of interest here to find out how the participants with different levels of motivation performed on the English proficiency test. To this end, the participants were divided into three low-motivation, mid-motivation, and high-motivation groups as shown in Table 4.14. In this table, the participants whose motivation mean score is 67 to 80 are placed in the low-motivation group, the participants with an motivation mean score of 81 to 106 are put in the mid- motivation group, and the participants whose motivation mean score range 107 to 127 are placed in the high-anxiety group:
Table 4.14
Motivation Groups
Groups
Anxiety score range
Low-motivation
67-80
Mid-motivation
81-106
High-motivation
107-127

Table 4.15 shows the number and the percentage of the participants’ in each motivational group:
Table 4.15
Participants’ Distribution in Motivational Groups
Groups
Frequency
Percent
Low-motivation
21
26.2%
Mid-motivation
46
57.5%
High-motivation
13
16.2%
Total
80
100.0

As can be seen in the above table, the percentages of the participants in low-motivation, mid- motivation, and high-motivation groups are 26.2%, 57.5%, and 16.2%, respectively. Accordingly, the majority of the participants were in the mid-motivation group. The low-motivation group occupied the second position while the lowest number of the participants was found in the high-motivation group. On the whole, about 84% of the participants had a low to middle level of motivation to learn English while only 16.2% were of high motivation to learn English.
Determining the relationship between the participants’ language proficiency and their level of motivation was one of the aims of the present study. Table 4.16 shows the participants’ English proficiency in the three motivational groups. As can be in this table, the mean score of the participants’ English proficiency in the low-motivation group is 22.14, the mean score of the participants’ English proficiency in the mid-motivation group is 24.07, and the mean score of the English proficiency in the high-motivation group is 28.31, respectively. Consequently, the high- motivation group had the highest level of English proficiency followed by the mid-anxiety group and the low-motivation group.
Table 4.16
Participants’ English Proficiency in the Motivational Groups
Groups
N
Mean
Std. Deviation
Low-motivation
21
22.14
6.159
Mid-motivation
46
24.07
7.464
High-motivation
13
28.31
4.423
Total
80
24.25
6.944

The above table suggests that the highly motivated participants scored slightly higher on the English proficiency test that did the low motivated participants. However, the main concern here is whether there is a relationship between the participants’ English proficiency and their motivation to learn English or not. Table 4.17 shows the results of the Pearson correlation test concerning the relationship between the participants’ language proficiency and their level of motivation to learn English:
Table 4.17
Correlation Between Motivation and English Proficiency

  منبع مقاله درمورداصالت اراده

Proficiency
Motivation
Proficiency
Pearson Correlation
1
.307**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.006

N
80
80

As shown in the above table, the value of the correlation between the participants’ motivation and their English proficiency is 0.307, so there is a slightly positive correlation between the two variables. Furthermore, the value of the significance level suggests that this correlation is significant (P 0.01). Therefore, it can be concluded that there was a positive significant relationship between the participants’ motivation and their English proficiency. In other words, the higher the motivation to learn English, the higher will be their English proficiency.
In summary, our findings show that the majority of the participants were in the mid- motivation group. The low-motivation group occupied the second position while the lowest number of the participants was found in the high-motivation group. In addition, the high- motivation group had the highest level of English proficiency followed by the mid-anxiety group and the low-motivation group, suggesting that the highly-motivated participants scored slightly higher in the English proficiency test that did the low-motivated participants. Accordingly, there was a positive significant relationship between the participants’ motivation and their English proficiency, which points to the fact that the higher the motivation to learn English, the higher the English proficiency will be.

4.1.4. Gender Differences Concerning Anxiety, Motivation, and Language Proficiency Level of Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners
This section deals with differences between male and female participants’ in terms of the relationship between language learning anxiety, motivation to learn English, and English proficiency level. Table 4.18 presents the descriptive statistics for the male and female participants’ level of anxiety:

Table 4.18
Males’ and Females’ Level of Anxiety
Gender
Mean
N
Std. Deviation
Males
83.89
35
13.741
Females
85.16
45
12.989
Total
84.60
80
13.253

As can be seen in the above table, the mean score of the anxiety level for male participants is 83.89 and the mean score of the anxiety level for female participants is 85.16, so the female participants experienced a slightly higher level of the anxiety than the male participants. However, as the results of the t-test in Table 4.21 indicate, there were no significant differences between the anxiety level of male and female participants in this study (P 0.05). Therefore, participants of both genders had the same level of language learning anxiety.
Table 4.19
Independent Samples t-test for Differences in Males and Females’ Level of Anxiety

  حقوق تجارت، حقوق اشخاص، اشخاص ثالث، فلسفه حقوق

Anxiety
Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances
T-test for Equality of Means

F
Sig.
T
Df
Sig. (2-tailed)
Mean Difference
Std. Error Difference
95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower
Upper
Anxiety
Equal variances assumed
.136
.714
-.423
78
.674
-1.270
3.002
-7.247
4.708

Equal variances not assumed

-.420
71.134
.676
-1.270
3.024
-7.299
4.759

Table 4.20 shows the distribution of the male and female participants in the mid-anxiety, low-anxiety, and high-anxiety groups:
Table 4.20
Distribution of Males and Females in Anxiety Groups
Gender
Groups
Total

Low
Mid
High

Males
6
17.14%
19
54.28%
10
28.57%
35
100%
Females
9
20%
23
51.11%
13
28.88%
45
100%

In this table, 17.14% of the male participants are in the low-anxiety group, 54.28% are in the mid-anxiety group, and 28.57% are in the high-anxiety group. Therefore, the percentage of the male participants in the mid-anxiety group is higher than their percentages in two other groups. Besides, the percentage of the male participants in the high-anxiety group is greater than their percentage in the low-anxiety group.
Concerning the distribution of the female participa
nts, it can be seen that 20% of the female participants are in the low-anxiety group, 51.11% are in the mid-anxiety group, and 28.88% are in the high-anxiety group. Accordingly, as was the case for the male participants, the percentage of the female participants in the mid-anxiety group is higher than their percentages in two other groups. In addition, the male participants are more frequent in the high-anxiety group than in the low-anxiety group. A comparison of the males’ and females’ distribution indicates that the percentage of the male participants in the mid-anxiety group is higher than that of the female participants in the same group. In contrast, the percentage of the female participants in the low and high anxiety group is higher than the percentage of the male participants in these two groups. Table 4.21 shows the level of the male and female participants’ motivation to learn English:
Table 4.21
Males’ and Females’ Motivation
Gender
N
Mean
Std. Deviation
Std. Error Mean
Males
35
91.09
11.556
1.953
Females
45
96.44
14.016
2.089

As shown in the above table, the mean score of motivation for male participants is 91.09 and the mean score of motivation for female participants is 96.44. Accordingly, the female participants were slightly were motivated to learn English than the male participants were. However, as the results of the t-test in Table 4.22 shows there was no significant difference between the motivation level of male and female participants in this study (P 0.05). Therefore, it can be said that both male and female participants were similarly motivated to learn English.

  منبع مقاله درموردجهان خارج، عقد نکاح

Table 4.22
Independent Samples t-test for Differences in Males and Females’ Level of Motivation

Motivation
Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances
T-test for Equality of Means

F
Sig.
T
Df
Sig. (2-tailed)
Mean Difference
Std. Error Difference
95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower
Upper
Motivation
Equal variances assumed
.864
.356
-1.829
78
.071
-5.359
2.930
-11.192
.475

Equal variances not assumed

-1.874
77.706
.065
-5.359
2.860
-11.053
.336

Table 4.23 shows the distribution of the male and female participants in three motivational groups:
Table 4.23
Distribution of Males and Females in Motivational Groups
Gender
Groups
Total

Low-motivation
Mid-motivation
High-motivation

Males
11
31.42%
21
60%
3
8.57%
35
100%
Females
10
22.22%
25
55.55%
10
22.22%
45
100%

As can be seen in the table, 31.42% of the male participants are in the low-motivation group, 60% are in the mid- motivation group, and 8.57% are in the high-anxiety group. Therefore, the percentage of the male participants in the mid-motivation group is higher than their percentages in two other groups. Besides, the percentage of the male participants in the low- motivation group is greater than their percentage in the high-motivation group. This suggests that the majority of male participants in this study had a low to middle level of motivation to learn English.
In addition, 22.22% of the female participants are in the low-motivation group, 55.55% are in the mid-motivation group, and 22.22% are in the high-motivation group. Accordingly, like the distribution of the male participants, the number of the female participants in the mid-motivation group is higher than their number in two other groups. However, the female participants are equally distributed in both low and high motivation groups. In addition, as can be seen in the table; the percentage of the male participants in the low-motivation and mid-motivation groups is higher than that of the female participants in the same groups, suggesting that the female participants were slightly more motivated to learn English than the male participants. However, as mentioned earlier, there was no significant difference between the motivation level of male and female participants.

4.1.4.1 Relationship between Male & Female Participants’ Language Learning Anxiety, their Motivation, & English Proficiency
Table 4.24 shows the results of the Pearson correlation test concerning the relationship between the male participants’ language learning anxiety, motivation to learn English, and their English proficiency:
Table 4.24
Correlation Between Males’ Anxiety, Motivation, and English Proficiency

Anxiety
Motivation
Proficiency
Anxiety
Pearson Correlation
1
-.385
-.452

Sig.

دیدگاهتان را بنویسید